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{{#invoke:other uses|otheruses}} Template:Ethnic group The Otoe (Chiwere: Jiwére)[1]Native American ludzie z Środkowo-zachodnie Stany Zjednoczone. The Otoe language, Chiwere, jest częścią Siouan family and closely related to that of the related Iowa i Missouri plemiona.

Historically, the Otoe Tribe lived as a semi-nomadic people on the Central Plains along the bank of the Missouri River in Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa i Missouri. They lived in elm-bark lodges while they farmed, and used Tipi while traveling, like many other Plains tribes. They often left their villages to hunt buffalo.

In the early 19th century, many of their villages were destroyed due to warfare with other tribes. European-American encroachment and disease also played a role in their decline. Today, they are federally recognized as the Otoe tribes of Oklahoma, and share a reservation with the Sac i Fox osób.


Historical tribal territory of the Otoe in green; present-day reservations in orange.

The Otoe were once part of the Siouan plemiona Wielkie Jeziora region, a group commonly known as the Winnebago. At some point, a large group split off and began to migrate to the South and West. This group eventually split again, coalescing into at least three distinct tribes: the DobraThe Missouria and the Otoe. The Otoe settled in the lower Nemaha River valley. They adopted the kultura koni and semi-nomadic lifestyle of the Wielkie Równiny, czyniąc Amerykański żubr central to their diet and culture.Szablon: Potrzebne cytowanie

Kontakt europejski

The States, the Ekspedycja Lewisa i Clarka headed up the Missouri River to explore the new territory. The Otoe were the first tribe they encountered. They met at a place on the west bank of the Rzeka Missouri that would become known as the Council Bluff.[2]

Podobnie jak inne Wielkie Równiny tribes, the Otoe periodically left their villages to hunt for buffalo. Between 1817 and 1841, the Otoe lived around the mouth of the Platte River w dzisiejszych czasach Nebraska. Hrabstwo Otoe, Nebraska still bears their name. During this time, the remaining familiesSzablon: Wyjaśnij ! Missouria rejoined them. They gathered with others to trade for European goods.Szablon: Potrzebne cytowanie

In the 1830s, the tribe was noted to have problems with alcohol, which was widely dispensed by traders. Some Otoe would trade vital supplies for alcohol, to the point of becoming destitute. As their dependence on alcohol grew, the men no longer hunted, but resorted to looting vacant Pawnee villages while the people were out hunting.[3] Christian missionaries built a mission tam.

In 1854 the Otoe-Missouria ceded most of their lands south of the Platte River in eastern Nebraska to the U.S. by treaty. They retained the Oto Reservation wraz Wielka Błękitna Rzeka on the present Kansas-Nebraska border. They struggled to adapt to reservation life.

Move to Indian Territory

Otoe delegation, 1881. Photographer John K. Hillers
File:Otoe Tribal Seal-Final.png
Otoe-Missouria Tribe Seal

During the 1870s, the tribe split into two factions. The Coyote band favored an immediate move to Indian Territory, where they believed they could better perpetuate their traditional tribal life outside the influence of the whites. The Kwakier band favored remaining on the Big Blue River land. They were willing to sell the western half of the reservation to whites to gain income for a tribal renta.

By the spring of 1880, about half the tribe had left the reservation and taken up residence with the Sac i Fox Nation in Indian Territory. By the next year, in response to dwindling prospects of self-sufficiency and continued pressure from white settlers, the remaining Otoe members in Nebraska sold the Big Blue reservation. They migrated to Oklahoma.

With the Otoe-Missouria already there, they purchased a new reservation in the Cherokee Outlet in the Indian Territory. This is in present-day Szlachetny i Pawnee Counties, Oklahoma. Today the Plemię Indian Otoe-Missouria is federally recognized. It is based in Red Rock, Oklahoma.

Notable Otoe

Zobacz też


Szablon: Reflist

Linki zewnętrzne

Szablon: Projekt siostrzany

Template:Native Americans in Nebraska Szablon: Plemiona Indian Amerykańskich w Oklahomie

Szablon: Kontrola uprawnień

  1. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  2. Strona 47, Lewis & Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery, przez Dayton Duncan, Pimlico (1998), 249 pages Szablon: ISBN
  3. Strona 200, The Pawnee Indians, przez George Hyde, University of Oklahoma Press (1988) (first published 1951, revised edition 1974), trade paperback, 372 pages Szablon: ISBN